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Knowledge Database, a searchable Database of Resources that "prove" the Earth is a Globe and more.

Deriving Dip Correction used in Celestial Navigagtion Almanac

The Nautical Almanac provides approximations to calculate the Dip Correction in Celestial Navigation, like: α = 0.0293 · √h. I show that the number is derived from the radius of the earth, taking refraction into account. I also derive exact formulas and provide a Calculator based on the exact formulas.
Friday, September 1, 2023 - 23:54 | Author: wabis | Topics: Calculator, Mathematics, Navigation, Geodesy

Measuring Earths Radius like Al-Biruni taking Refraction into account

Derivation of variants of Al-Birunis formulas to calculate the Radius of the Earth, taking Refraction into account. An Online Calculator based on this formulas is provided, using the horizon Dip Angle, the Observer Height and some Atmospheric Parameters to calculate the Radius of the Earth. The Calculator also calculates the Mountain Height from Al-Birunis measurements of Elevation Angles to the top of the mountain from 2 distances. Measurement Tolerances can be entered to get the Accuracy of the results.
Friday, July 28, 2023 - 22:36 | Author: wabis | Topics: Calculator, FlatEarth, Geodesy, Geometry, Horizon, Knowlegde, Mathematics

Erie Canal GPS Benchmarks prove the Earth is not Flat

The Erie Canal is a historic canal in upstate New York that runs east-west between the Hudson River and Lake Erie. When built, the 584 km canal was the second-longest in the world. The overall elevation difference is about 172 m. In this post I show how we can use the location data of GPS stations along the Erie Canal to measure the drop due to earths curvature.
Monday, August 29, 2022 - 23:55 | Author: wabis | Topics: FlatEarth, Geodesy, Analysis

Blue Origin Flat Earth Video Analysis

Flat Earthers on Youtube distribute a video that shows the ascent of a rocked to space from an onboard camera. The horizon appears flat the whole flight, which for them is proof for the flat earth. I show that instead of applying the correct lens correction to get rid of the barrel distortion introduced by the fisheye lens of the camera, the original video was deliberately distorted by a flat earther to show a flat horizon. Applying the proper lens correction however shows the horizon curved exactly as predicted by the globe model.
Tuesday, June 28, 2022 - 15:01 | Author: wabis | Topics: Video, Analysis, FlatEarth, Horizon

Why Celestial Navigation requires a Globe

Flat earthers claim that Celestial Navigation only works on a Flat Earth, not on a Globe. In this post I show why Celestial Navigation does not work on a Flat Earth, as it is applied by navigators, not even if Flat Earthers use a Nautical Almanac, that is based on spherical math and coordinates of stars on a celestial sphere. The reason is, because the Circles of equal Altitude are only circles on the Globe. To get a valid position on a Flat Earth this circles have to be projected from the Globe onto the Flat Earth as shown in this post.
Friday, April 8, 2022 - 13:25 | Author: wabis | Topics: FlatEarth, Geometry, Mathematics, Navigation

Bolivia Salt Flat is not Flat

The Bolivia Salt Flat appears flat as far as we can see. So Flat Earther use this as proof that the earth is flat. Using UNAVCO GPS reference stations I can prove that the Bolivia Salt Flat curves exactly as predicted by the WGS84 Globe Model. It's not flat at all.
Monday, November 29, 2021 - 01:49 | Author: wabis | Topics: FlatEarth, Geodesy, Analysis

Surface of Rotating Water as Proof of Gravity

"Water can bend". The surface of water in a rotating fish tank has a parabolic shape, it is not flat. The shape is determined by external forces or accelerations, one of them is gravity. Knowing the forces we can calculate how water bends. Measuring the shape of the water surface we can even measure the gravitational acceleration g.
Tuesday, November 9, 2021 - 16:04 | Author: wabis | Topics: FlatEarth, Mathematics, Physics, Simulation

GPS Flight Data and the Shape of the Earth

GPS Flight Data proves that the earth is not Flat, using Modus Tollens Logic. GPS data shows that Airplanes drop their Nose 1° per 111.2 km. Assuming that GPS data is recorded on a Flat Earth results in Impossible Speeds and Accelerations over Antarctica. The GPS Flight Data Visualisation App can be used to analyze GPS Flight Data.
Wednesday, September 29, 2021 - 01:01 | Author: wabis | Topics: Aviatic, Geodesy, Interactive, FlatEarth

How Airplanes follow the Curvature of the Earth, Physics Simulation

The design and physics of airplanes is such that they hold a certain trimmed altitude and speed, following the curvature of the earth automatically, even without any intervention of the pilot or autopilot system. Pilots don't have to drop the nose to correct for curvature. The interactive physics simulation of an airplane on this page shows how this works. The physics model and the corresponding behaviour of the airplane are explained. The Source code and the equations are described in detail.
Wednesday, July 7, 2021 - 23:52 | Author: wabis | Topics: Knowlegde, Interactive, Physics, Simulation, FlatEarth

Is the Constellation Big Dipper visible from Antarctica?

Some Flat-Earther found on a webcam image from Antarctica a star constellation that resembler the Big Dipper.

Since the Big Dipper cannot be seen on Earth from Antarctica, these flat-earthers believe they have found evidence of their flat-earth model. Here I show that the constellation they found is not the Big Dipper, but part of the constellation Sagittarius.

Thursday, May 6, 2021 - 23:07 | Author: wabis | Topics: FlatEarth, Astronomy, Knowlegde

M.A.G.E. - Mission Above Globe Earth, Image Analysis

Mr Sensible conducted a high altitude ballon experiment that contained 3 cameras, a pressure and a temperature sensor and a GPS device. The goal was to record pressure, temperature and altitude, as well as to show the curvature of the earth to an altitude up to 39,000 m. The altitude was almost reached.

Video: MAGE II - What shape is the Earth?; M.A.G.E. - Mission Above Globe Earth - The final results!

On this page I compare the curvature of the horizon with the predicted curvature of my Curvature App. The curvature shown in the video linked above matches exactly with the prediction of the Curvature App, which is based on a globe with radius 6371 km. This means, the observed curvature of the horizon is caused by the spherical shape of the earth.

Sunday, November 1, 2020 - 23:00 | Author: wabis | Topics: Science, Experiment, Physics, Balloon, Analysis

Lens Distortion and the Curvature of the Earth

When using distorting lenses like GoPro fisheye lenses, the curvature of the horizon is not shown correctly, except if the horizon line passes through the center of the image. The App on this page lets you investigate how different shapes are distorted by different lens distortions depending on their position in the frame.
Thursday, October 22, 2020 - 00:18 | Author: wabis | Topics: Knowlegde, Simulation, Interactive, Geometry

Satellite Distance from Angle Measurements for Globe and Flat Earth

Using angle measurements to visible geostationary satellites like the Himawari 8 from two different locations we can calculate the position, altitude and distance of the satellite for the Globe and Flat Earth model. I provide a calculator to make the calculations for both models and show the results in an interactive animation. All math is explained in detail. The results show that the Flat Earth model is wrong.
Sunday, September 13, 2020 - 07:53 | Author: wabis | Topics: Knowlegde, Space, Geometry, Calculator, Interactive, Animation

How Airplanes correct for the Coriolis Effect

I show with an interactive model how the Coriolis Effect emerges in the rotating reference frame of the earth. I show how airplanes take the Coriolis Effect into account and how they manage to keep up with different tangential speeds at different latitudes. I provide all equations and calculators to calculate the corrections airplanes have to apply. I show that the Coriolis Effect is small enough so it can be ignored in flight planning.
Wednesday, September 2, 2020 - 22:39 | Author: wabis | Topics: Knowlegde, Physics, Aviatic

Determining the Shape of the Earth with Zenith Angle Measurements

Measuring the shape of the earth using a theodolite without assuming a Globe is not trivial, because atmospheric refraction introduces measurement errors which change the appearance of the earth. I describe a method of how the shape of the earth can be determined taking refraction into account.
Wednesday, February 12, 2020 - 03:19 | Author: wabis | Topics: FlatEarth, Mathematics, Science, Calculator
 About Walter Bislin (wabis) Rights Public Domain
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