Light-Bending: This Model shows how light rays from the Dome on the Flat Earth Model have to be bent to match the apparent positions of Sun, Moon and Stars and to produce the Tracks, Star Trails and Day-Night Terminator as observed in reality for each time and location on earth. Only by bending the light rays as shown by this Model it is possible that Sun, Moon and Stars can go apparently down below the horizon, while they are still above the Flat Earth.
Sun/Moon Tracks: During 24 hours the sky with the fixed Stars rotates about 1 degree more than 360 degrees. So in 365.25 days the star constellations at the same time are at the same place in the sky again. You can see this in the model by advancing DayOfYear step by step (place the cursor into the field and hit arrow Up or Down). The Dome grid will advance each day by about 1 degree.
If you advance the time by 24 houre steps, the Sun moves up and down between the Solstice lines during one year, causing the seasons. The Sun also moves left and right a bit so it traces a figure 8. This is caused by the tilt of the Globe earth axes against the Sun Ecliptic plane 23.44 degrees. You can see the tracks of Sun and Moon against the fixed star background (Dome Grid) by checking the options Sun Track and Moon Track. A desciption of the tracks is presented if you click the Eclipses button. These tracks correspond to what is observed in reality. The tracks are derived from the Heliocentric Model.
Retrograde Motion of Moon's Track: The Sun Track stays fixed on the Dome Grid. But the Moon Track slowly rotates retrograde against the Dome Grid and rotates one full rotation in 6798 days. This is due to the precession of the Moon Orbit caused by the distant Sun. Currently the Moon Ecliptic is such that the Track of the Moon extends the Track of the Sun North/South about 5 degrees. In about 3400 days from now the Track of the Moon lies inside the Track of the Sun about 5 degrees. This observation has no explanation in the Flat Earth Model but follows from the Heliocentric Model.
Eclipses: The intersection points of Sun and Moon Track are called Knots. There are 2 such Knots marked by a green dot. If Sun and Moon are exactly on opposite Knots, a Lunar Eclipse happens. If Sun and Moon are exactly on the same Knot, a Solar Eclipse happens (play Demo Eclipses from Step 6 on).
This Flat Earth Model can predict Solar and Lunar Eclipses. But it can not predict moons shadow on earth at Solar Eclipses or earths shadow on the Moon on Lunar Eclipses, because the required relative sizes and distances of Sun and Moon and the spherical shape of the earth are essential to compute the corresponding shadow paths. So the location on earth where the Solar Eclipses happen can not be derived from the Flat Earth Model.
Moon Phases and Orientation: The model shows the Moon Phases and the Orientation of the Moon with respect to the horizon at the location of the Observer. The apparent rotation of the Moon during the day is due to the fact, that the cameras up vector stays always perpendicular to the surface of the earth while following the path of the Moon. An Equatorial Mount for the camera or telescope does not produce such a rotation as it follows the Moon.
Equinox: This Model produces the correct apparent Sun positions at Equinox, so that the Sun raises at 6:00 AM due East and sets at 18:00 PM due West everywhere on earth.
Poles: This Model produces 24 hours day and night on the Northpole and Antarctica.
Heliocentric Model: In reality ovserved Tracks of Sun, Moon and Stars (Star-Trails), the Equinox and Solstice Knots and the Day-Night Terminator can not be derived from the Flat Earth Model itself. They have to be assumed without any cause or reason. This Model derives them using the Heliocentric Model. On the Heliocentric Model they are simply a consequence of Gravity in play and the angles between the orbital planes of Sun and Moon. You measure the positions of Sun and Moon on their Orbits at any time and all future and past positions can be calculated using Newtons universal law of gravity.
Shapes on the Dome: The shape of Sun, Moon and star constellations on the Dome have to be distorted exactly like shapes of the real Globe world are distorted when mapped onto the Flat Earth. So the Sun and Moon on the Dome sould be squeezed circles, bent along a latitude line of the Dome. This distorted shapes get corrected by the bending of light as shown in the model, so the observer sees perfect spheres for Sun and Moon and the correct star constellation shapes.
All features of this Model are derived from the Heliocentric Model to produce an almost working Flat Earth Dome Model.
Lightrays: There are no known physical laws that can bend light so much and in this exact fashion to produce the real observations as shown in this Model. There are an infinte number of possible lightray paths that could be choosen to model the bent light. There is no physical cause to choose a specific one. So this Model chooses Bezier curves to model the light rays. The Bezier control points can be adjusted with the magenta slider. The smaller RayParam ist, the stronger the curve, the bigger RayParam, the smoother the curve.
Impossible Light-Bending: Atmospheric effects can never bend light that much. Not even known materials for lenses can achieve this. Even if such bending could be achieved by the atmosphere or something else, I can not derive any constant density gradient to produce just the right bending to connect each location on the Dome to each location on the Flat Earth at the right time.
No South-Pole: The Southpole makes serius problems. There can be no Southpole Star, because on the Flat Earth Model this star has to be smeared around the whole border of the Flat Earth.
Light bending over Night-Shadow: To produce 24 hours Daylight on Antarctica the Sun rays have to be bent over a region of Night shadow to the observer.
Moon Phases and Orientation: The Moon Phases on the Flat Earth can not be explained by the interplay of Sun and Moon with respect to the Observer. The Moon has to have it's own light. The Moon Phases and its orientation are complicated and can not be modeled by a simple rule on the Flat Earth. The Model derives the Moon Phases and its Orientation, as they can be observed in reality, from the Heliocentric Model. The Orbits and Distances of Sun, Earth and Moon are essential to derive the Moon Phases.
Shadows of Eclipses: Although the Model could predict the date of Eclipses, the Shadows on Lunar and Solar Eclipses, and therefore the locations and times on earth, where they can be observed, can not be calculated with the Flat Earth Model, because to compute the shadows you need the full 3D positions and sizes of the objects. You can't compute them from flat projections. All projections onto planes or domes lose the third dimension.
Brightness and Heat from the Sun: How does the sun produce the right amount of light and heat for each observer? The inverse square law does not work here because the individual distances between Sun and Observers in the model does not reflect reality, so the brightness and heat would never match observations. The Sun would have to produce light and heat different for each location on earth without any physical explanation.
The purpose of this model is to show to what extent a Flat Earth model with a Dome can produce observations that match reality. This can only be accomplished by strong light bending. The model also shows, that many observations of reality can not be modeled with a Flat Earth Dome model.
The basic idea of my model is: The Flat Earth is a projection of the 3D Globe onto a flat plane. What if we project 3D space with Sun, Moon and Stars (and Planets) onto a 2D Dome? That is what my model does.
Note that although the Dome itself may be 3D, it only represents a 2D surface. Of course applying the known physical laws of light propagation, on the Flat Earth we would see a completely different imgage of reality than we can observe. Sun, Moon and Stars on the Dome never go physically below the horizon. So you have to invent things like the Flat Earth Perspective, which does not work as needed either. But if you assume light bending as shown in my model, it can really produce the images that we observe to a certain extent, if you don't look too close into it. Exceptions are Solar and Lunar eclipses for example. Although you can predict the dates of this events, like the ancient astronomers could by observing the sky, but you can not predict the locations on earth, where this events happen. They can only be seen on certain locations and times, which we can only predict using the Heliocentric model.
Some other points I wanted to show with my model are:
Sun and Moon trace specific paths on the celestial sphere. This paths have no cause on the Flat Earth model. The only explanation is, a creator has created it that way. But in the Heliocentric model all paths follow automatically from the law of universal gravity. You only have to measure the current positions, velocitys, sizes and distances of Sun, Planets and Moons and you can calculate all past and future locations and how they appear from the earth or any other place by applying the law of gravity alone. You can predict the exact locations and times where solar eclipses can be seen (from the shadow that the Moon traces on earth).
The Moon phases and its apparent orientation for any observer on any place on earth, as shown in my model, can not be explained by the Flat Earth model. They have no relations to the flat earth sun too, so the moon has to have "its own light". My model can predict this observations for any place on earth by using the Heliocentric model.
The Day/Night Terminator on the Flat Earth that matches reality has a very peculiar shape that changes over the course of a year. The shape depends somehow on the location of the sun. This shape can only be explained with the Heliocentric model by projecting the Terminator from the Globe Earth with a tilted axis onto the Flat Earth. The shown light bending in my model would produce this terminator line correctly. But this light bending is not a thing that arises naturally, but is computed explicitly in a way to produce the real observations.
To have a Dome means, all heavenly bodies are located on or near the Dome. The real solar system is a 3D space with big objects very far away from each other orbiting around each other. The Dome is a 2D projection of this 3D space, very similar to the 2D projection of the Globe Earth onto the Flat Earth plane. This produces inevitable distortions you have to correct somehow (by bending light). By loosing the third dimension you loose a lot of information to produce and predict real observations. So Flat Earther have to "make things up" to explain observations that follow automatically from the real 3D universe we live in.
Last but not least, the Flat Earth does not represent the real shapes and sizes of the continents. This can never be accomplished. A 3D sphere, as the Earth really is, can never have a similar surface as its flat projection. This is geometrically impossible. That's the reason why a sphere looks different than a plane in the first place, because their surfaces hav different curvature. They can never match globally. You can only make small flat maps of the Globe surface that get not distorted too much to be usefull for finding local places. But you can never accurately measure real distances from any flat map projection. Global navigation has to, and always did, use spherical coordinate systems, like the current WGS84 model, used by GPS and aricraft navigation systems.
Some observations like the positions of Sun, Moon and Star Constellations as well as Sun/Moon-Rise and -Set can be explained by a Flat Earth Model if we allow strong light bending in a specific way. Even the date of Eclipses can be predicted from this model.
But observations as the southern celectial pole, Moon Phases and its Orientation and apparent Rotation as well as the track of the Shadow of the Moon on solar Eclipses can not be computed from the Flat Earth Model, because you need the correct size and orbits of Sun, Moon and Earth to compute this. The essential third dimension is lost if you assume a Dome over the Flat Earth, where Sun and Moon are close and small.
There is no explanation or scientific model that can physically explain why and how light is bent as needed by this Flat Earth Model.
The Model assumes a perfect circular Orbit of the Earth around the Sun and a perfect circular Orbit of the Moon around the Globe Earth. This results in a slight divergence of the dates of Equinox and Solstice from reality a few days.
The Model chooses to match:
Azimuth and Elevation of Sun and Moon are also slightly inaccurate due to the use of circular orbits instead of elliptical orbits. This affects also the Moon Phases.
The Day-Night Terminator is derived from the Heliocentric Model to match reality:
The special shape of the Night-Shadow produced by the mapping of the Globe Night-Shadow onto the Flat Earth results automatically, if the light rays are bent as shown in this model.
The Moon Phases and their orientations with respect to the Horizon at the Observer can only be computed from the Heliocentric Model as follows:
The App can be called with some URL parameters to set a specific App State:
You can use the Save/Restore Panel with the Button Get App URL to get an URL from the current state of the App. Copy this URL into any Web-Form (e.g. YouTube comment) and by clicking the link this page is opened with the saved state from the URL.
Some parameters may be combined in one URL, eg, &demo=Intro&play=3&speed=3
The App changes the URL in the adressbar of the browser to reflect the current state of the App. You can copy the URL to and post it in a comment. With the Back and Forward browser buttons you can jump from state to state.