Bild: 2017-09-03 __liPsAYnJs Toronto 30.8mil 6ft.png

Zoom2017-09-03 __liPsAYnJs Toronto 30.8mil 6ft.png
Source Rogers Center from 6ft above Lake Ontario 30.84 miles away (Youtube)
Upload Sonntag, 3. September 2017; wabis
Grösse 443 kB
Masse 2736 x 1824 Pixel

This screenshot from my Curvature App shows how Toronto sould look like from 30,8 miles at 6 ft under standard refraction. The yellow-red measuring rod represents the CN tower with a height of 553 m. Each mark is 55,3 m high. The tallest buildings in the screanshot are 200 m high.

Under Standard Refraction of 0,171 the Rogers Center is hidden behind the horizon. But applying medium Refraction of 0,272, which corresponds to a temperature gradient of 1°C/100m, which is no problem on warm air over cool water, the top of the Rogers Center would be just visible.

In the video we can see that the the city is compressed considerably and above the water there is a small layer that is streched and/or inverted. Compression occurs when refraction changes from high to low with increasing altitude. So if the top of the city is visible under standard refraction and transitions to the bottom to medium refraction, then this compression occurs. The inversion of the lowest part can occur when the ground is hotter than the air above, which I expect in the city.

The clear wheather in the video points to a warm day. So if the water is not as warm as the air above then there should be Refraction greater than Standard. That matches the observation and is confirmed by the Curvature App. A temperture gradient of 1°C/100m transitioning to Standard of −0,65°C/100m is very common on such days.

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Created Sonntag, 3. September 2017
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Changed Sonntag, 3. September 2017