Calculators, Equations and other Stuff

Here are some links to Calculators, link to Equations and their derivation and links to pages that don't have a dedicated blog page yet or are more an addition to some pages than their own topic.


Calculators and Units Converters
A variety of calculators collected on one place.

Advanced Earth Curvature Calculator
Calculation and visualisation of earth curvature related properties like hidden parts for globe and flat earth.

Simulation of Atmospheric Refraction
The interactive Refraction Simulator on this page renders scenes as seen on atmospheric conditions you can provide.

Geo-Data Visualisation and Calculator App / List of Geo-Data Files
App to display ECEF coordinates gathered with GNSS. Default shows Lake Ponchartrain Causeway overlayed with Soundly's image.

IGS Network / UNAVCO Reference Stations / NGS Continously Operating Reference Stations (CORS)
Some Data Files with GNSS Reference Stations to display and investigate with the Geo-Data Visualisation and Calculator App.

Rainy Lake Experiment: WGS84 Calculator
WGS84 based transformations of vectors between ECEF cartesian and geodetic coordinates (lat,long,height).

Globe and Flat Earth Transformations and Mappings

WGS84 Distance, Azimuth and Radius Calculator
For calculations in the WGS84 ellipsoid model of the earth

Coriolis, Centrifugal and Gravitational Forces on the WGS84 Globe Model

Earth Gravity Calculator
Calculates the effective gravitational acceleration, the pure gravitational acceleration and the centrifugal acceleration for any point on the Reference Ellipsoid or above.

Creating Flight Plans for Flat Earth
This App lets you create a Flight Plan based on the Flat Earth Model and view the calculated track on flat earth and globe.

Distances on Globe and Flat Earth
Calculate the shortest distance between two points for globe and flat earth.

Centrifugal and Gravitational Acceleration in an Aircraft
Calculation of the Eötvös effect on a weight in a aircraft, taking speed, direction, latitude and altitude into account.

Calculator: Parallax Triangles

Cavendish Experiment Simulator

Calculator for Refractivity based on Ciddor Equation

Measuring Earths Radius like Al-Biruni taking Refraction into account

Communication Path Calculator (RF Link Budget)
This calculator determines the amount of transmitted power received and delivered to the input of a radio receiver in a RF communication link that has signal dissipation losses in the transmitter and receiver hardware as well as signal attenuation as the RF signal energy travels and disperses along its propagation path. The transmitted power received together with the receiver sensitivity determines if the communication link is successful or fails. Author George Hnatiuk.

Gravitational Acceleration and Potential Field of a Cylinder

Derivations of Equations

Calculating the Radius of the Earth from Hidden Height

Measuring Earths Radius like Al-Biruni taking Refraction into account
Derivation of new equations and a calculator that handles uncertainties

Eight Inches per Miles squared Formula Derivation
Calculating the accuracy of the approximation 8" per miles squared equation. Derivation of the exact and approx. equation.

Exact Equations for the Hidden Height (Destination PageAdvanced Earth Curvature Calculator)

Rainy Lake Experiment: Equations
Derivation of curvature drop, horizon distance, refraction angle and lift.

Deriving Dip Correction used in Celestial Navigagtion Almanac

Deriving Equations for Atmospheric Refraction
Derivation of equations for terrestrial atmospheric refraction from basic physical laws.

Deriving Equations for Atmospheric Pressure and Density

Deriving Equations for the Atmospheric Pressure Profile in a rotating Cylinder

Refraction Coefficient as a Function of Altitude

WGS84 Coordinate System
Equations to transform vectors between ECEF cartesian and geodetic coordinates.

World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84); official Globe Model; local Copy; PDF;
Its Definition and Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems

Deriving the Horizontal Component of Coriolis on a Sphere

Derivation of Special Relativity from basic observable Principles

Method to calculate the Radius of the Earth from 3 Points

Globe Arc Projection to Flat Earth
Equations and Script to project a circle on a globe to the flat earth

Curvature of Latitude
there are 2 curvatures of a latitude line on a sphere

Gravity on an infinite Flat Earth Plane
Derivation of equations to calculate gravity for an infinite plane

Barometric Formula
Equations for pressure, density and temperature for the International Standard Atmosphere

Distance and Mass of the Sun from Tidal Forces

Other Stuff

Measuring Curvature and Refraction is done

Why Celestial Navigation requires a Globe

INS take Gravity, Earth Rotation and Coriolis into account

Ships Over The Horizon, Globe vs. Flat Earth

Strong Refraction Simulation and Reality for 2 Oil Platforms
I managed to reproduce a rare refraction situation that gave raise to discussions for flat earthers.

Sunset Simulation vs. Reality
This sunset illustrates the fact, that refraction can bend light from behind the horizon towards the observer, so it appears above the horizon.

First Photograph of the Curve of the Horizon, CurvApp overlay

Curved Horizon from 46,000 ft through a HUD, CurvApp overlay
The horizon drop and the curvature of the horizon match exactly the prediction of the Curvature App

Horizon and Refraction explained
Visialisation of apparent horizon at different looming confitions

Radius of Earth at Great Salt Lake Desert Rte 80

Causeway Measuring Radius of the Earth

Flat Earthers Perspective (Flerspective)
Demonstration of how Flat Earthers Perspective would look like

Understanding GPS/GNSS RINEX Files and Relevant Parameters

Patents for Erection Mechanisms of Attitude Indicators (AI)
Collection of patents of erection mechanisms for mechanical attitude indicators.

Field Artillery Manual accounts for Earth's Rotation

ISS Tracks on Flat Earth

Refraction and Height of Light Rays above Surface

Preventing intrinsic Precession on Foucault Pendulums


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Created Tuesday, September 17, 2019
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Changed Monday, October 16, 2023